Category: Sanitasi

Towards Better Programming: A Sanitation Handbook

Book Title: Towards Better Programming: A Sanitation Handbook

Publication: A publication of UNICEF/Programme Division Water, Environment and Sanitation ID No. UNICEF/PD/WES/98-3

Excecutive Summary:

This handbook has been prepared to help you— working groups of professionals responsible for sanitation programming—prepare realistic and better sanitation programmes. “Better” will not be perfect, however, because the field requires continual innovation, rigorous study, and steady improvement to meet the challenges of the sanitation sector.

As you work through the programme cycle, use this handbook as a guide and reference on major topics of sanitation programming. Assessment, analysis, and action—the “Triple A” methodology—are incorporated into this systematic planning approach. The handbook will help you to explore the major questions, considerations, and options for each of a series of major topical aspects of sanitation programming. In the past decade, UNICEF has been giving increasing emphasis to sanitation. In her Mid Decade Goal Review Speech in the General Assembly, for example, UNICEF Executive Director Carol Bellamy mentioned sanitation as one of the agency’s four major goals and a field of growing importance in our global field work. In addition, the UNICEF

Executive Board has urged the UNICEF secretariat to place greater emphasis on environmental sanitation, hygiene, and behavioural change—and to allocate resources as required (1995). The Executive Board also approved a new water, environment, and sanitation (WES) strategy emphasizing the deployment of participatory approaches; capacity building; community contributions toward recurrent and capital costs of basic service levels; gender-balanced approaches; improved monitoring systems; effective intersectoral linkages; and greater attention to deprived, low-income urban areas.

The sector remains in a learning phase; as such there are no easy answers. To help you learn from the promisingwork of others, examples of programmes, projects, and activities reflecting better programming principles in action are provided in the handbook; over time, however, your own work will be expanding its content as well. Your WES colleaguesand those of partner agencies are here to help you in that process.

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Book Title: COMMUNITY APPROACHES to TOTAL SANITATION (Based on case studies from India, Nepal, Sierra Leone and Zambia)

Publication: © United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), New York, 2009

Excecutive Summary:

Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS CATS ) is anumbrella term used by UNICEF sanitation practitioners to encompass a wide range of community-based sanitation programming. CATS share the goal of eliminating open defecation; they are rooted in community demand and leadership, focused on behaviour and social change, and committed to local innovation. The CATS Essential Elements are a framework for action, providing a common foundation for work in the sector while allowing for broad variation in the way programmes are applied and translated locally.

UNICEF works closely with governments and other partners in more than 50 countries around the world to mainstream CATS and bring sanitation programming to scale. The Essential Elements are based on lessons learned from decades of sanitation programming and reflect UNICE F’s Global Strategy for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASASH). Worldwide application of CATS has the potential to bring the Millennium Development Goal sanitation target – to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation – within reach by transforming the global rate of progress in sanitation.

This Field Note discusses the evolution of sanitation programming in UNICE F and the origins of our Community Approaches to Total Sanitation. It examines each of the CATS Essential Elements and explores their implementation through country case studies. The case studies illustrate a range of methods under the CATS umbrella: Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTSTS) in Sierra Leone and Zambia; School-Led Total Sanitation (SLTSTS) in Nepal; and the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSCTSCTSC) in India. These are only a few of the many community approaches to total sanitation being undertaken around the world that exemplify the CATSEssential Elements.

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Definisi Sanitasi

Pengertian Sanitasi

            Sanitasi merupakan suatu usaha yang dilakukan baik oleh pemerintah, instansi-instansi pemerintah ataupun masyarakat terhadap pencemaran yang terjadi (Depkes, 2008) yang meliput penyediaan air bersih, pembuangan kotoran manusia (jamban/wc), pembuangan air limbah dan pengelolaan sampah (tempat sampah).

Sanitasi adalah perilaku disengaja dalam pembudayaan hidup bersih dengan maksud mencegah manusia bersentuhan langsung dengan kotoran dan bahan buangan berbahaya lainnya dengan harapan usaha ini akan menjaga dan meningkatkan kesehatan manusia. (

            Dalam A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO (1992) dikatakan bahwa:

“ Sanitation refers to all conditions that affect health, expecially with regard to dirt and infection and specifically to the drainage and disposal of sewage and refuse from houses. Environmental sanitation as including the control of community water supplies, excrete and wastewater disposal, refuse disposal, vectors of disease, housing conditions, food supplies and handling, atmospheric conditions, and the safety of the working environment.”

            Pengertian lain tentang sanitasi dijelaskan oleh Water Sanitation Program (WSP); a guide to decision making (2008) menjelaskan bahwa :

“ sanitation’ refers to the safe management and disposal of human excreta. It is important to understand that this involves service delivery, not just the installation of infrastructure; both service providers and users need to act in defined ways”.

            Dari pengertian di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa sanitasi adalah manajemen segala bentuk buangan limbah yang berpengaruh pada kesehatan baik itu limbah padat maupun cair. Dikatakan lebih lanjut, terkait dengan limbah manusia diperlukan juga penyediaan seperti air bersih, drainase, dan pengelolaan limbah padat, dimana dalam penangulangannya diperlukan adanya koordinasi dengan lembaga-lembaga yang terkait.



Water Sanitation Program (WSP); AGuide to Decision Making.(2008)

World Health Organization; A Guide to The Development of On-Site Sanitation. (1992)